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Employers need to talk to their employees about sleep — and not just when they catch them snoozing on the job.
There’s a ton of research suggesting American adults are having problems sleeping because of work-related stress. New data suggests that while we might technically be in bed for the recommended seven to nine hours, thinking about our mistakes on that last project report might mean we’re only actually resting for five Sleep disturbances, work stress and work hours: a cross-sectional study. Akerstedt, T., Kuntsson, A., Westerholm, P., et al. National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health Departments of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2002 Sep;53(3):74108.. If employers want to improve their employees’ health, and thereby their productivity, they need to focus not just on sleep quantity but also sleep quality.
What’s the Deal?
There’s reason to believe Americans spend a lot of time tossing and turning, trying to put the stress of the day behind them and drift off to dreamland. The American Time Use Survey indicates the average American spends almost nine hours sleeping every night. But according to recent sleep polls, Americans say they only sleep about seven hours per night. So where are those missing two hours? It’s possible that while Americans spend nine hours in bed, only seven of those are spent actually sleeping or achieving a good rest as opposed to hitting the snooze button over and over.
While the demons that keep us awake at night obviously differ for everyone, job stress is among the most common. A growing body of research suggests the inability to stop worrying about work during our free time may contribute to problems sleeping, and studies have found that the more we feel stressed and overwhelmed at work, the more likely we are to experience disturbed sleepSleep disturbances, work stress and work hours: a cross-sectional study. Akerstedt, T., Kuntsson, A., Westerholm, P., et al. National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health Departments of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2002 Sep;53(3):74108.Relationships of occupational stress to insomnia and short sleep in Japanese workers. Utsugi, M., Saijo, Y., Yoshioka, E., et al. Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. Sleep 2005 June;28(6):728-35.Job Stress and Poor Sleep Quality: Data from an American Sample of Full-Time Workers. Knudsen, H., Ducharme, L.J., Roman, P.M. University of Georgia Athens, GA, U.S. Social Science & Medicine 2007 May;64(10):1997-2007.. Recent studies also suggest people’s sleep quality improves significantly around retirement, and researchers attribute this change to a decrease in work-related stressThe Course of Subjective Sleep Quality in Middle and Old Adulthood and Its Relation to Physical Health. Lemola, S., Richter, D. Department of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. The Journals of Gerontology 2012 Dec 11.Effect of retirement on sleep disturbances: the GAZEL prospective cohort study. Vahtera, J., Westerlund, H., Hall, M., et al. Sleep 2009 Nov;32(11):1459-66..
Why It Matters
This trend extends far beyond a few frazzled workers who sleep with their smartphones glued to their faces. A series of National Sleep Foundation polls suggests that more than half of American adults experience one or more symptoms of insomnia at least a few nights a week. Those symptoms include waking up not feeling refreshed, waking often during the night, and waking too early and not being able to fall back asleep.
Health experts generally counsel employers to figure out ways to manage chronic sleep deprivation (see psychologist Laurence Stybel’s recent piece on PsychologyToday.com for an example). But what these leaders really need to focus on is sleep quality over sleep duration, and specifically the ability to separate the office from the bedroom. In the end, companies as well as individuals will benefit, since research has shown that problems sleeping contribute to poor (and even unethical) performance on the jobSleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll. Swanson, L.M., Arnedt, J.T., Rosekind, M.R., et al. Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Journal of Sleep Research 2011 Sep;20(3):487-94.Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America insomnia survey. Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P.A., Coulouvrat, C., et al. Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Sleep 2011 Sep 1;34(9):1161-71.. And even though employers aren’t doctors, they may actually be in the best position to help employees deal with work-related stress, since they’re actually familiar with the work environment. Maybe that means implementing company-wide sleep management programs, or even meeting individually with employees to discuss their bedtime routines.
With any luck, by the time next year’s ATUS rolls around, we’ll be able to say with confidence that we spend that whole nine hours snoozing. And maybe we’ll stop having that dream about showing up to work naked. Just me?
Do you find yourself preoccupied with work-related worries when you should be snoozing? Let us know in the comments below or tweet the author at @ShanaDLebowitz.