When we feel blue, sometimes the best remedy is reaching for the cookie jar or cuddling up with an ice cream cone. These treats can be a quick fix, but sweets may not be the healthiest solution to happiness.
Sweet Surrender — Why It Matters
Sugar is found in a range of foods: from a batch of homemade holiday cookies to a bottle of ketchup. Many of these foods contain processed sugar (also known as sucrose), which causes significant spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels. Processed sugar also increases endorphins that can boost mood and provide a temporary chemical “high” Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familiar history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes. Fortuna, J.L. Department of Health Science, California State University, Fullerton, CA. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2010 Jun;42(2):147-51. Differential effects of honey, sucrose, and fructose on blood sugar levels. Shambaugh, P, Worthington, V, Herbert, J.H. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1990 Jul-Aug;13(6):322-5.. (Sugar’s effects on blood glucose vary in different people, so it’s unclear just how much sugar it takes to cause a high. Is glycemic index of food a feasible predictor of appetite, hunger, and satiety? Niwano, Y., Adachi, T., Kashimura, J., et al. Carbohydrate Task Force, International Life Sciences Institute Japan, Tokyo. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2009 Jun; 55(3):201-7. ) And sugar may not be the only substance to lift our spirits— one study found a bit of chocolate makes people more willing to help others Sweet taste preferences and experiences predict prosocial inferences, personalities, and behaviors. Meier, B.P., Moeller, S.K., Riemer-Peltz, M, et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011 Aug 29..
For some, it may be harder to steer clear of the sweet stuff. It turns out we can blame genes for making us wish it were Halloween everyday, as certain people may be genetically predisposed to crave sugar Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familiar history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes. Fortuna, J.L. Department of Health Science, California State University, Fullerton, CA. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2010 Jun;42(2):147-51.. Plus, recent research suggests people who prefer sweets are more likely to be friendly, compassionate, and yes— sweeter Sweet taste preferences and experiences predict prosocial inferences, personalities, and behaviors. Meier, B.P., Moeller, S.K., Riemer-Peltz, M, et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011 Aug 29.. But a bag of Skittles probably isn't the healthiest route to kindness.
Sugar Highs and Lows — The Answer/ Debate
Forget friendliness— research has linked sugar consumption to higher rates of depression A cross-national relationship between sugar consumption and major depression? Westover, A.N., Marangell, L.B. Depression and Anxiety, 2002;16(3):118-20.. In terms of physical effects, concentrated sugar sources (like candy and fruit juice) can cause blood sugar spikes and drops, which can leave us extra-sleepy Aspartame- or sugar-sweetened beverages: effects on mood in young women. Pivonka, E.E., Grunewald, K.K. Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1990 Feb;90(2):250-4.. After a few weeks, even low to moderate sugar consumption (as little as 40 grams, the same as a can of coke!) can decrease the size of LDL particles, and smaller LDL particles are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Aeberli, I, Gerber, P.A., Hochuli, M., et al. Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 Aug;94(2):479-85. Epub 2011 Jun 15.. Other researchers pinpoint excessive sugar intake as a cause of obesity and diabetes. Makes those sugar cookies seem a little bittersweet, right?
And unfortunately, sweetness isn’t even a short-term solution to a sour mood. In meals that also contain protein (yup, that includes the protein in ice cream), the carbohydrates in sugar don’t have their usual mood-boosting effect Carbohydrate ingestion, blood glucose and mood. Benton, D. Department of Psychology, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2002 May;26(3):293-308. And chocolate addicts, take note: Researchers found indulging in some cocoa-therapy general fails to brighten people’s moods Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'. Macdiarmid, J.I., Hetherington, M.M.Psychology Department, University of Dundee, UK. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1995 Feb;34 ( Pt 1):129-38.. Guess sex might be better than chocolate, after all.
A sweet treat can provide a temporary high, but that happiness boost will quickly fade. Excess sugar can potentially do more damage than good to our health.
Do you reach for something sweet when feeling down? Does it really make you happier? Tell us in the comments below!