A practice old as time, developed by indigenous peoples, burning sage — also known as “smudging” — has been traditionally used to help clear negative energy.

However, fast forward thousands of years, and high-wire anxiety is not only common but expected. Of course we’re going to look to the days of yore, without smartphones and 12-hour shifts and lining up outside supermarkets, for advice on how to chill the eff out.

The 21st century pumps out negative energy (looking at you, 2020, you sh*thead). But is sage smudging an effective counter to modern pressures?

Well, it’s one of many methods practitioners continue to recommend for relaxation, focus, and combating everyday stress. Those who engage in these cleansing rituals claim that burning dry sage can help clear the air and promote mindfulness.

So does it work? And, if so, how? Are the ethical concerns around sage burning worth it? We inhaled deep and decided to impart some sage wisdom…

Sage is an aromatic plant that’s long played roles in the worlds of both medicine and food. Americans probably recognize the herb for its use in stuffing around the holidays, but this leaf does more than jazz up what you shove inside your turkey.

Ancient Romans called sage a salvation plant (literally, salvare, meaning “save” or “cure”), and sage has been used in ancient Egyptian, Roman, and Greek medicines for its natural healing properties. It is a triple-OG of herbal medicine.

While sage has deep historical roots, that doesn’t mean it isn’t relevant in modern medicine.

According to recent studies, sage has powerful antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory qualities.Hamidpour M, et al. (2014) Chemistry, pharmacology, and medicinal property of sage (salvia) to prevent and cure illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, depression, dementia, lupus, autism, heart disease, and cancer. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4003706/ Researchers are currently holding it under the microscope as a natural treatment for a whole host of issues, including:

  • depression
  • dementia
  • obesity
  • lupus
  • heart disease
  • cancer

Dried sage, especially white sage, was traditionally used by Native Americans for a whole host of benefits, most specifically as a method of purification. This is the term that most often springs to mind when we hear the word “smudging.”

Smudging, however, is an English term used to describe the process. Most Native American groups have their own unique words to explain the practice.

“Smudging is the process of burning dried plants or other natural elements and then using the smoke to cleanse themselves, objects, or even places,” explains Rosalyn LaPier, Ph.D., an award-winning Indigenous writer and ethnobotanist.

“Usually the dried plants are burned over a hot coal placed in a large shell or on the ground. The person places both hands over the smoke, takes the smoke within her hands, and beginning with her head and continuing downward, ‘washes’ her entire body with the smoke.”

This ancient Native American practice remains in popular use today. As it gains more popularity in mainstream culture, however, it’s important to honor and respect the cultural roots of smudging before giving it a go and weigh up the potential ethical concerns with the perceived health benefits.

There isn’t a lot of research on burning sage.

One study discovered that the use of medicinal smokes such as sage resulted in a 94 percent reduction in airborne bacteria.Nautiyal CS, et al. (2007). Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17913417/

There’s also research pointing to the possibility that smoke-based remedies are often absorbed more efficiently by the body.MohagheghzadehA, et al. (2006). Medicinal smokes. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17030480/

1. Mindfulness

Burning sage can help you in the pursuit of mindfulness.

“In theory, if you bring more awareness to what you are doing, especially by engaging your senses, you can reduce your stress — so something like smudging really does that,” says Christopher Willard, PsyD, author of Raising Resilience.

“It’s close to mindfulness, in which we bring our full sensory attention to what we are doing, and that’s easier to do with a sweet-smelling movement practice, like smudging.”

Mindful meditation can actually change your brain and help you handle stress, so if burning sage helps you relax and enter a more focused brain space, then it’s totally worth it.

Learn more about mindfulness, and filter negativity from your life.

2. Aromatherapy

Sometimes, the smell alone can chill you out, regardless of the plant’s chemical properties.

Gina Smith Pasqualini, certified aromatherapist and founder of Good Living is Glam, says that even if you’re skeptical about the science behind burning sage, there can still be benefits to participating in the practice.

“Whether or not you believe that energy can be cleared by smudging, the scent alone can have a grounding effect. This allows you to think more clearly, reduces anxiety, and creates a sense of calm in your day-to-day life,” Pasqualini says.

If the scent of sage isn’t your thing, you can also incorporate other aromatics into your smudge stick as well. Lavender, rosemary, cedar, rose, thyme, and yerba santa are all great additions to burning sage.

Many of these aromatics are known for their therapeutic properties. Research shows that relaxing aromas (such as lavender) can help improve how your body and brain work after a bout of stress.Chamine I, et al. (2016). Aroma effects on physiologic and cognitive function following acute stress: A mechanism investigation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5035835/

3. Belief in intention

So even if you’re on the fence about whether or not burning sage can purify the air, its stress-relieving benefits can be totally great for your health. Having a ritual that is your space and your space alone can be good for you period.

And this, Pasqualini says, can help provide a “grounding effect” that allows you to relax and focus your thoughts.

“Rituals and routines can help calm us by bringing order and predictability to your life,” Willard says. “So whether you believe sage itself has mystical qualities or not, the ritual will almost certainly reduce tension.”

Whether you’re smudging for spiritual reasons or simply to relax, engaging in this mindful practice can calm and center.

However, rituals and mantras needn’t revolve around ethically questionable cultural practices. You can build yourself a personal mantra that helps center you and get you through every day regardless.

Sage burning is more controversial than it would first appear.

Make sure you understand where the ritual comes from. As smudging has become more popular, it’s introduced a commercial element to an ancient practice. This calls into question of ethics and cultural appropriation.

In short, if you’re going to monetize cultural heritage, make sure the money goes to its originators and their communities.

There is a dark side to sage burning: While you can go to a trendy herbalist and buy a sage wand in the 21st century, indigenous people underwent serious persecution for burning sage on the grounds of “witchcraft.” Plus, white sage is at risk of being endangered and is often illegally harvested.

Be sure to buy high-quality and ethically, legally sourced sage, which means you’ll probably want to avoid mass-market retailers. It’s great to buy local, from a Native American-owned business, and you can find your nearest business that fits the bill here.

Also remember to be respectful of the practice. Cultural appropriation is never cool, and as the practice of burning sage becomes more mainstream, it’s important to remember that we should respect and engage in the practice without co-opting it thoughtlessly.

Pasqualini was introduced to smudging by her mother, who was born and raised in the Dominican Republic, where burning herbs was common for clearing energy. She emphasizes that, while it’s important to respect the cultural significance of smudging, everyone can benefit from the practice.

“There are different forms of dance or music that originated elsewhere,” Pasqualini explains. “We use those creative and sometimes spiritual arts to unite people from different cultures. Smudging is no different, and should be used to improve our collective health.”

If you’re simply looking to make your head feel better, there are essential oils you can try.

If you’re interested in trying smudging, Pasqualini recommends getting used to the smell of sage first — it’s not like the sage you put in stuffing.

“Sometimes people think it will smell like the sage you cook with. However, California white sage — which is commonly used in smudge sticks — has an herbaceous, woodsy, and slightly astringent scent,” she says.

“I recommend using a smudge stick that’s approximately 3 to 5 inches long for a small space or to keep handy in your personal ritual kit. The smaller size also helps avoid being overcome by too much smoke as you learn how to use it.”

Ready to engage in the practice? It’s not a whole world away from the practice of burning incense. So if you’re used to pretty smells wafting through your living space, you’ll have a good head start.

  1. You’ll want to make sure to use a heat-proof bowl or abalone shells to hold your smudge stick.
  2. Once you’re ready to engage, light the end of the sage bundle until it starts to smoke.
  3. Be sure to light the sage evenly, and — after letting it burn for a few seconds — the flame should go out on its own. (If it doesn’t, blow it out gently.)
  4. Pasqualini recommends repeating your intention throughout the ritual, almost like a smudging prayer.
  5. Then, you can carry your smoking sage throughout your house to clear your space — using the bowl to catch any ashes, of course — or carefully move it at a safe distance around your body. Be sure to crack any windows or doors and visualize getting rid of any negative energy to help focus your thoughts.

“The ingredients can be wrapped inside of the sage bundle, or bundled separately, in the case of cedar and rosemary,” Pasqualini says. “Or you can burn loose, dried ingredients in an abalone shell as an alternative to a wrapped bundle.”

And, as with any fire or smoke-related practice, be sure you don’t leave a burning sage smudge stick unattended. It’s always better to be safe than sorry. If your bedroom is on fire, it kind of undoes the relaxing effects of a smudge stick.

If you’d rather avoid open flames while trying to relax, essential oils may be of service.

If you’re struggling to find local, Native-American-owned businesses from which to get your smudge sticks but feel like you’d really benefit, you can try putting your own together.

1. Gather supplies

You’ll need white sage, string, scissors, and any additional aromatics (like dried lavender, cedar, or rose).

2. Arrange your bundle

Layer your herbs, starting with the largest as a base, and arrange them however you like. There’s no right or wrong way!

3. Wrap it with cotton twine or string

Starting in the center, wrap the string toward the top of the bundle before returning to the base. Be sure to crisscross the string tightly, but not to the point where you crush the contents. Cut off any excess string.

4. Let it dry

Hang the bundle upside down in a cool, dry place for at least a week.

5. Smudge!

Light one end evenly over a heat-safe bowl or abalone shell, and let it burn for a few seconds before putting out the flame. Set an intention and carefully use the smoking sage stick to cleanse your space while practicing mindfulness.

The science on sage burning is thin on the ground, but its cultural history of helping people feel better and regain clarity is long-documented.

If you’re looking for ways to feel better or even just to zone out from modern life in healthful ways, it sometimes helps to look back to the way people lived before screens, factories, and smog.

You may well be planning to give sage smudging a try. If you do, always pay respect to its roots. And if it doesn’t do much for you, there are plenty other natural ways to unwind and recalibrate.

Jandra Sutton is an author, historian, and public speaker. After graduating from Huntington University with a B.A. in history, she went on to receive a master’s degree in modern British history from the University of East Anglia. In her spare time, Sutton enjoys fangirling, running, and anything related to ice cream. Pluto is still a planet in her heart. She lives in Nashville with her husband and their two dogs. You can follow her on Twitter and Instagram.

Adam Felman is an Editor for Medical News Today and Greatist. Outside of work, he is a hearing impaired musician, producer, and rapper who gigs globally. Adam also owns every Nic Cage movie and has a one-eyed hedgehog called Philip K. Prick.