Shrimp come in a surprisingly huge range of sizes, varieties, and preparations — fresh and frozen, wild and farmed, jumbo and teeny tiny.

It can be hard to know which kind to choose, but this guide on how to buy shrimp, as well as how to store it, thaw it, prepare it, and cook it will make you a Bubba Gump level expert in no time.

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Natalia Mishina/Stocksy United

The shrimp family consists of thousands of different species, but only a small portion of these are widely consumed. Although they can be found throughout the world’s oceans, the majority sold for consumption in the U.S. are farmed. The rest are wild-caught from the areas just off our coasts.

If you’re lucky and live near the shore, you might have access to an array of local species. These seven, however, are the ones you’re most likely to see at your average grocery store.

Brown gulf shrimp

These are your all-purpose variety, well-suited for stews, curries, stir fries, and more. Most wild-caught brown shrimp hail from the Gulf of Mexico, although they can also be found off the Atlantic coast up to North Carolina. Grayish-brown in color, they tend to be small to medium-sized, with firm, flavorful meat.

White gulf shrimp

Wild white shrimp are also abundant in the waters off the east and southeastern U.S., and can be found in close proximity to their brown counterparts. They’re distinguished by their larger size, smoother shell, and pale gray or bluish color.

Prized for their mild, tender, and fleshy meat, they readily absorb seasoning. Another excellent choice for general use, they’re especially suited for shrimp boils or grilling, where that extra heft really counts.

Pink gulf shrimp or Key West pink shrimp

These are another eastern variety, with high concentrations off the coast of Florida. Distinguished by their pinkish-gray shell and a dark spot halfway down the tail, they are small- to medium-sized.

Known for their distinctive sweet and briny flavor, they’re a favorite for simple preparations such as shrimp cocktails or baskets of peel-and-eat shrimp.

Rock shrimp

A chef favorite, rock shrimp, which are found a bit farther offshore in the southeastern U.S., have caught on in popularity in recent years. Distinguished by their hard outer shell, they have a full, lobster-like taste and texture.

Northern pink shrimp

Found in the cool waters off both the northeastern and northwestern coasts, northern pink shrimp are small (about 50 or more per pound), but they pack in loads of sweet flavor. These are ideal for shrimp-based salads.

Argentinian pink shrimp

A more recent contender in American seafood cases, these shrimp are caught off the coast of Argentina, and are a pink color even when raw. This can make judging doneness by color a bit tricky, but the sweet, tender meat, often compared favorably to lobster (but way cheaper) is worth it.

Try them in tacos and other simple preparations like shrimp scampi.

Tiger shrimp or tiger prawns

Tiger shrimp are native to the Indian Ocean and the Asian side of the Pacific, although the majority sold for consumption are farmed.

Distinguished by the dark stripes that run across their shells, they tend to be medium to large in size, and some specimens have even been known to reach well beyond a foot in length. These are great for grilling.

It should be noted that in the U.S., “shrimp” is used to refer to most edible species, from the smallest to the very large, although you might see the word “prawn” used to describe the biggest ones.

In the U.K., the word “shrimp” tends to be reserved just for the smallest specimens, while “prawn” is more common in general use. Langoustines, although commonly referred to as scampi or Dublin Bay prawns, are actually a part of the lobster family.

Depending on your recipe, you may want to go for a larger or a smaller shrimp.

Categories like small, medium, or large aren’t standardized, but you can go off the by the pound count, which any seller worth their salt will provide. You’ll often see a ballpark number, annotated with a slash. For example, 26/30 means that there are 26-30 shrimp in each pound.

The largest shrimp may be marked with a “U” for “under” — for example, U10 shrimp will be 10 or less per pound. Once you get above 50 per pound, you’re dealing with some pretty small specimens. At the other end, once you start to go below 20, things get pretty colossal.

Fun fact: Virtually all shrimp are frozen soon after they are captured. Those “fresh” shrimp in the store? They’ve been previously frozen and thawed.

Shrimp (and all crustaceans) have enzymes in their liver that begin attacking the flesh as soon as the animal is killed, turning it to mush. This process is partly mitigated by removing the upper torso and head (most shrimp sold for consumption is actually just the tail), and is why head-on shrimp spoils especially fast.

But the only way to fully minimize spoilage due to enzymes, bacteria, and oxidation is by freezing them completely. Unless you can get freshly caught shrimp (lucky you), you’re better off buying them from the freezer case, since as soon as they defrost, they begin to deteriorate again.

If you’ve noticed that your shrimp has an odd texture even after following instructions for cooking it perfectly, or that it still seems semi-translucent even after turning white, it’s probably because of sodium tripolyphosphate or sodium bisulfite.

These additives are often used to prevent shrimp shells from discoloring (which in itself is not dangerous at all), as well as to make them seem larger than they really are. Some packaging claims may say the additives “retain moisture,” but this really means they absorb water to plump them up.

Unfortunately, this adversely affects their texture when cooked.

It can be difficult to find frozen shrimp without sodium tripolyphosphate — and when you do, they’ll be more expensive. (Then again, you’ll be getting what you pay for, rather than sub-par shrimp that’s been inflated with extra water weight).

Since even “fresh” shrimp at the seafood counter was likely previously frozen, it may also have been treated. Ask your fishmonger if you’re concerned.

Let them thaw in the fridge overnight (preferably in a colander set over a large bowl), or quick thaw in a bowl of cold water about 15 minutes ahead of when you plan on using them. Never re-freeze shrimp.

If you buy fresh shrimp, use them ASAP.

If you can’t toss ’em on the barbie immediately after purchasing, try this trick: Open the bag and place a paper towel over the top. Then place the bag on a bowl of ice and store in the coldest part of your fridge. The shrimp should be OK to use for up to 2 days.

Frozen shrimp should not be allowed to thaw between buying and storing. If your shrimpies didn’t already come in an air-tight bag, transfer them to one, leaving about 1/4 inch of space at the top, and keep in the freezer for 3-6 months.

Whether you’re dealing with fresh or defrosted shrimp, make sure that the flesh is firm (it will have some give, but shouldn’t be totally mushy) and that there aren’t any noticeable “off” odors.

While a slight iodine smell is normal, especially with brown shrimp, there shouldn’t be anything particularly fishy or ammonia-like going on. That’s a sign that your catch is well beyond its peak.

If you’re conscious about avoiding antibiotics and other substances used to maintain farmed seafood stocks, it would seem logical to go for wild-caught shrimp.

But in the wild, shrimp inhabit the bottom floor of their habitats. It’s necessary to use large nets to catch them in significant numbers, and these nets tend to pick up a lot of bycatch. This method can produce significant waste and be disruptive to the marine ecosystem.

Farmed shrimp, on the other hand, are hit or miss, depending on the methods used to raise them.

Laws regarding the use of antibiotics and chemicals vary widely from country to country, although the U.S. has pretty comprehensive regulations.

Additionally, inland shrimp farms are generally set up with circulation systems that can handle waste, whereas coastal operations tend to deal with waste simply by dumping it back into the environment.

There is also the issue of human rights abuse to consider. Shrimp that comes from certain places (like Thailand) may have been produced using forced labor.

Meanwhile, and in the matter of all things seafood, it’s best to consult with organizations such as the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch. Their guides make recommendations regarding the sustainability of different fishing and seafood farming methods, and are updated regularly.

If you’ve ever had shrimp cooked in the shell, you’ll know that the outer layer locks in all of the meat’s fullest flavors. Even if you don’t plan on cooking or eating them that way, you should still seek out shrimp that come with the shell on because it acts as a barrier against spoilage and oxidation, keeping the meat firm and tasty.

Plus, shelled shrimp is generally more expensive, and there’s a higher likelihood that its been mangled or mishandled somewhere along the line.

For the same reasons, you may also prefer to buy shrimp with the vein in and remove it on your own. Yes, deveining (that’s taking out the intestinal tract, which can be filled with sand and debris) is an extra step, but the rewards pay off in a better-tasting product.

The more intact the shrimp, the less likely it’s been treated with sodium tripolyphosphate too.

To remove the shell from fresh or defrosted shrimp, just slide your thumb in where the legs are to loosen it, then peel it away, leaving the tail on, if you prefer, or gently pinching it off.

To devein, simply make a shallow slit down the back of the shrimp with a paring knife and remove the dark tube inside. See? Easy peasy.

If you want to remove the vein but keep the shells on (say, if you’re grilling the shrimp), just use kitchen shears to slit the shell down the back and a sharp paring knife to lift out the vein.

After deveining, rinse the shrimp again (sometimes a little grit gets on the meat during the cleaning process) and pat dry before you use them in your recipe.

Since you’re buying shrimp in the shell, save them for an easy shrimp stock. It only takes a few extra minutes, and you can stash the stock in the freezer if you don’t need it right away. Here’s how:

It’s not just for Cajun cooking, either. This stock is perfect for seafood soups, risotto, paella, and anything else you’d like to infuse with more oceanic flavor.

Now all that’s left to do is get cooking!

Despite their diminutive name, shrimp have a domineering presence across cuisines and take well to a wide range of flavors and accompaniments. Here are some of our favorites, covering a wide range of cooking processes (though don’t forget about steaming shrimp and frying shrimp either).

1. Spicy shrimp and grits

Shrimp and grits are a classic combo, but there are countless variations on the pair. This one spices up the seafood with some chipotle, cumin, curry, and paprika, and enriches the flavor with salty ham.

Get our spicy shrimp and grits recipe.

2. Vietnamese grilled shrimp salad

OK, so maybe you can’t hop on a plane to Vietnam to sample its culinary delights — but you can recreate some of them at home with this grilled shrimp salad. Lemongrass-marinated shrimp sits atop a bed of thin rice vermicelli and crisp veggies, sprinkled with crunchy peanut pieces.

Get our Vietnamese grilled shrimp salad recipe.

3. Grilled sweet chili and lime shrimp kebabs

Don’t turn off the grill just yet — there’s another tasty recipe to try! You can grill shrimp shell-on or shell-off, threaded onto skewers or in a grill basket. Here, we skewer them after they take a dip in a quick and easy sauce, then slap ’em on the grill for a cooking time of just 3 minutes.

Get our grilled sweet chili and limi shrimp kebabs recipe.

4. Chipotle shrimp burritos

Chipotle is more than just a burrito chain — the OG chipotle is a deliciously spicy, marinated version of jalapeños. This recipe (which, yes, happens to be for burritos) pairs the coolness of shrimp with the zip of chipotles, plus veggies for color and crunch. Wrap the whole thing up in the tortilla of your choice!

Get our chipotle shrimp burritos recipe.

5. Easy shrimp pho

Shrimp make a nice addition to a bowl of brothy noodles, and they cook directly in the pot. For a more intense seafood flavor, use a shrimp stock in place of the chicken broth in this recipe.

Get our easy shrimp pho recipe.