At some point, you may have felt antsy or unfocused and wondered if you might have ADHD. As a culture, we generally associate hyperactive, inattentive, or disruptive behavior with ADHD. But this mental health disorder is actually very complex.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, aka ADHD, does cause higher-than-usual levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity, but those are just a few of the symptoms.

ADHD can present itself in a wide range of behaviors, depending on a person’s age and even gender. Unfortunately, this can make getting an accurate diagnosis difficult.

Symptoms can appear as early as ages 3 to 6. About 9 percent of children ages 2 to 17 have ADHD, and up to 60 percent have symptoms into adulthood.

A 2011 survey found that more than 1 in 10 school-age children were diagnosed with ADHD — and that number appeared to increase each year.

Despite the prevalence of ADHD, doctors and researchers don’t know for sure what causes it. But according to the CDC, research doesn’t support the popular views that too much sugar, too much TV, or poverty can cause ADHD.

It’s no surprise that identifying ADHD in babies and toddlers is extremely difficult. Many of the signs of ADHD — short attention span, impulsivity, tantrums, and high levels of activity — are also behaviors associated with the “terrible twos.”

Before 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics’ diagnostic guidelines applied only to children ages 6 to 12. These guidelines have since expanded to include kids from 4 to 18.

Possible symptoms

Many parents would agree that “active” and “energetic” describe a lot of young kids. Even the most spirited toddler can usually focus on a picture book or puzzle, but children with ADHD may not be able to complete these seemingly simple tasks.


Diagnosing a young child with ADHD takes time — 6 months, in fact. Not only does their behavior have to be tracked, they must also display symptoms in more than one setting.

Why? A developmental problem could be incorrectly diagnosed as ADHD, preventing the child from getting proper treatment.

The National Survey of Children’s Health found that nearly 195,000 children ages 2 to 5 were diagnosed with ADHD between 2010 and 2011. As of 2016, 388,000 children in that age range had received a diagnosis.

Behavioral difficulties aren’t the only reason a doctor may suspect ADHD at a young age.

Other indications include:

  • genetic factors
  • drug or alcohol use during pregnancy
  • marijuana use during pregnancy
  • environmental toxin exposure during pregnancy
  • preterm birth or low birth weight
  • central nervous system problems at critical moments in development
  • a delay in motor development, speech, and language
  • family history of ADHD

Just as there are no guidelines for diagnosing ADHD in toddlers, there are no protocols for treatment.

Preschool-age children and infants who show signs of ADHD should see a specialist, such as a developmental pediatrician, speech pathologist, psychologist, or psychiatrist.

After an evaluation, the specialist may be able to help your doctor determine the best course of treatment.

Behavioral therapy appears to be as effective as stimulants in young children, but if symptoms don’t improve, medication may be necessary.

In that case, your doctor will closely monitor the dosage to ensure your child gets the maximum benefit of the medication with the fewest possible side effects.

When your child is old enough for kindergarten, consider asking their school for additional educational support.

It’s common for children to daydream, fidget, and interrupt. But if these behaviors are so persistent that they’re affecting your child’s social life or academic performance, there may be an underlying issue.

On average, kids with ADHD are diagnosed at age 7, but they may show signs even earlier. One in 10 children between the ages of 5 and 17 are diagnosed with ADHD — it’s one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in the U.S.

It’s easy to associate ADHD with loud, rambunctious behavior. But the disorder can actually present itself very differently in girls than in boys.

Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, but that isn’t because girls are less susceptible to it. Symptoms in girls can be more subtle, making the disorder harder to pinpoint.

Research from 2010 shows that boys display more externalized symptoms (like running around and acting impulsively), while girls’ behaviors are more internalized (like daydreaming).

Since these signs are often overlooked, girls don’t get the evaluation or treatment they need. This can lead to physical and mental issues in the future.

ADHD signs in girls

Girls with ADHD tend to show more inattentive symptoms. For example, they’re more likely to forget an assignment at school than to disrupt the class or act out.

Because these signs aren’t as obvious as hyperactivity, teachers and parents may not realize the child is struggling. Instead, they may think she’s lazy, spacey, or immature or that she has a learning disability.

Unfortunately, as many as 75 percent of girls with ADHD go undiagnosed. And if they do finally get a diagnosis, it’s typically 5 years later than boys.

Risk factors of ADHD for girls

For young girls with undiagnosed ADHD, there’s more at risk than grades and social relationships. As they find it harder to function in everyday situations, they may begin to blame themselves and internalize their frustrations even more.

Research has shown that this can lead to low self-esteem, which is linked to even bigger issues such as:

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • stress
  • eating disorders

Young women with ADHD are also three to four times more likely to attempt suicide than girls undiagnosed with ADHD and two to three times more likely to self-harm.

Girls with undiagnosed ADHD are also more likely to have issues at school, in social settings, and in personal relationships than girls without ADHD.

ADHD signs in boys

Although boys are more commonly diagnosed with ADHD, the disorder is still sometimes overlooked. Since boys are perceived as more energetic, their hyperactivity may be written off as typical adolescent behavior.

While research has shown that boys with ADHD more often behave in impulsive and disruptive ways, they may also have inattentive symptoms, similar to those of girls. In those cases, it may be difficult for them to receive a correct diagnosis.

Risk factors of ADHD for boys

If their ADHD goes undiagnosed, boys may begin to feel the impact of the disorder in other areas of their lives. In addition to struggling at school, at work, and in relationships, they’re also at risk for developing:

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • learning disabilities

If your child shows signs of ADHD at school, ask for a detailed list of concerns from their teacher and school counselor. This way you can provide their doctor with as much information as possible.

Their doctor will perform an exam, provide a diagnosis, and develop a treatment plan (if necessary). The doctor may refer you to a child psychologist specializing in ADHD.

For most children, a combination of medication and therapy is the best course of action. Since not all symptoms of ADHD can be controlled by medication alone, therapy can provide additional support and help fill in any gaps.

More than half of children with ADHD will experience symptoms into adulthood. An estimated 2.5 percent of adults have ADHD, but many don’t even realize it. When this disorder goes untreated, it can cause a number of issues that affect your everyday life.

Whether you notice signs of ADHD in your child or in yourself, it’s important to see a doctor as soon as possible.

If your child regularly shows symptoms of ADHD or if their behavior is having a negative effect on their school performance or social life, you should contact their school and doctor immediately.

A guidance counselor may be able to do a preliminary assessment, which can help with the doctor’s professional evaluation.

You should also talk to your doctor if you have any ADHD symptoms. Changing jobs often, unhealthy patterns in relationships (like numerous divorces), and having few personal or professional achievements may be indicators of ADHD.

Recognizing the different expressions of ADHD is key to properly diagnosing and treating it. Age and gender can have a major influence on how the disorder presents itself.

Undiagnosed ADHD can have negative effects on many areas of your life, but seeking treatment can vastly improve the symptoms.

In addition to medication, cognitive behavioral therapy, eating right, learning how to handle stress, and getting the right amount of sleep can help you manage your ADHD.

Treating ADHD isn’t just about keeping your life in order. Children with ADHD are five times more likely to have depression, and up to 31 percent of adults with ADHD are also depressed.

Though the cause of ADHD is unknown, researchers are looking for answers. Genetics, nutrition, and even neurotoxins may all play a role in the disorder’s development.