The same ingredients add up to entirely unique experiences in the cup.

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Latte vs cappuccino: do you know the difference between these two coffee drinks? You probably know which one you like, but what do you know about the one you shun?

Somehow the question of difference between a latte and a cappuccino has become a hot-button topic for coffee people of all types, from the hater to the dilettante to the professional. Why is it so hard to distinguish between these two drinks? A few different reasons leap to mind, including the fact that they have literally the exact same ingredients—espresso, steamed milk, and foam—and the truth that in most cafés, specialty or not, the baristas are wildly inconsistent with their preparation of both beverages, though not necessarily on purpose (or even knowingly).

Let’s get right to it:

Fundamentally, these drinks are defined by their texture, which is determined by the ratio of ingredients: A cappuccino has more foam by volume than a latte does. A latte tends to comprise mostly of gently steamed milk with a kiss of foam on top, just enough so that it’s mostly gone after a sip or two, though it informs the overall mouthfeel of the entire delightful drink.

One really easy way to remember this is to translate the word latte from the Italian to the English: It simply means “milk.” (In fact, in lots of smart-alecky Italian bars, if you simply order a latte they will give you a glass of milk; a caffe latte is actually what you want, and will more often produce the correct results.)

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The term cappuccino has disputed origins, but many repeat the legend that the drink is named for the Capuchin monks, an order of Catholic brothers who wore brown cowls and shaved their heads bald. If you look down on a properly poured cappuccino, it has a design on it called a “monk’s head,” a ring of brown espresso circling a thick white ball of foam—just like an aerial view of one of these monks, or so it goes. (Just think of a “cap” as a hat, or a topping, of foam—that should help you remember the difference.) Ideally, or traditionally speaking, a cappuccino is meant to be a perfect ratio of the components: 1/3 espresso coffee, 1/3 milk, 1/3 foam.

In many specialty-coffee shops today, however, baristas are trained to add the same amount of texture to their steamed milk by utilizing the same technique regardless of drink. Often the way they compensate for the identical milk is to simply make the drinks different sizes, with a cappuccino running smaller (say, six ounces) and a latte tending a little larger (say, eight, ten, or 12 ounces). The size difference alone changes the perception of texture when there’s any amount of foam involved, but often it’s not enough: If you like foam on your cappuccino (as you should!), you might want to request the barista make it a touch on the “dry” side, which means stretching the milk more to give it an airier, lighter, fluffier texture.

You might like one or the other, or you might like both—here’s how to enjoy either at home.

No matter how you like your espresso mixed with milk and foam, here are a few recipes and tips to bring you to a level of warm-caffeinated-drink nirvana.

Espress(o) Yourself

Alton Brown is a coffee nerd from way back and he gets almost everything (except the milk, actually) right in this episode of “Good Eats.” Watch this for your espresso basics—but turn it off once he goes into the milk section. Or watch the above demonstration on how to pull the perfect espresso shot, then read up on why you should buy an espresso machine, and where espresso comes from in the first place.

Foam at Home

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It’s hard, but not impossible to make foamed milk (or “frothed” milk, which is a term that makes me vaguely uncomfortable) at home without an espresso machine. If you have a stove or a microwave, you can whip up some whipped milk in basically no time. See how to froth milk without fancy equipment, including a mason jar method, a French press method, and with a good old-fashioned whisk.

Turmeric Latte

Once you’ve gotten your milk just gently textured, you’re ready to rock and roll with some of the hottest drink trends. A little sprinkle of turmeric into your espresso or strong-brewed coffee will bring you close to the Instagram craze of a golden latte (or, fine, a golden cappuccino—whatever you prefer). PS: Replace the “instant coffee” in this recipe with the real stuff. You’re worth it. Get the Turmeric Latte recipe.

Pumpkin Spice Latte

Or go with the perennially trendy PSL, which is easy to make at home, not to mention way cheaper and healthier than the original. Unlike at Starbucks, you can even make it vegan with oat milk if you want to. Maple syrup, a quick DIY pumpkin spice blend, and real pumpkin puree make this something special—and if you don’t have an espresso machine, a Moka Pot is the next best thing. Get our Homemade Pumpkin Spice Latte recipe.

Mocha (Which, by the Way, Is Basically Just a Chocolate Latte)

Splash some chocolate syrup into your hot coffee, mix it with steamed milk, and voila, you’ve got yourself a caffe mocha, one of the most perfect drinks to grace the earth. If you’re feeling cappuccino-y, no worries: In Italy and in Australia, cappuccinos often come with a sprinkle of cocoa powder on top, which is basically an invitation to add chocolate however you see fit. (Also, try steaming chocolate milk and mixing it with hot coffee for a treat—you won’t be sorry.) Get the Mocha recipe.

Iced Latte (Caffe Shakerato)

Technically an “iced cappuccino” doesn’t really exist (who wants to scoop hot foam onto an iced drink?), but iced lattes are so easy and so delicious you won’t even care. Shaken all together, they can even have a fizzy texture that delights without the fuss! Get the Shakerato recipe.

Flat White (The Perfect Marriage of a Latte and a Cappuccino!)

Ask three Australians or New Zealanders what a flat white is and you’ll probably get three different answers. Generally speaking, the drink appears to be a latte-textured beverage (that is, very little foam) served in traditional cappuccino-size proportions (that is, slightly smaller, say five or six ounces total). The name is cute and ordering it makes one feel well-traveled and savvy, so if you like milky coffee drinks and are easy(ish) to please, this little number might be just the ticket for you. Get the Flat White recipe.

Erin Meister is both a longtime journalist and a coffee professional with nearly two decades’ experience. She has written about food, coffee, film, travel, music, culture, and celebrity for The Boston Globe, The Washington Post, Rachael Ray Every Day,, Time Out NY, Chickpea Magazine, Food & Wine’s, BUST magazine, Barista Magazine, and more.