For many, whole grains are an important part of a healthy diet. Consuming at least three servings of whole grains per day (one serving is a ½ cup of cooked grains like oatmeal or rice, or one slice of bread) can reduce the risk of some chronic health conditions like cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Mellen, P.B, Walsh, T.F, Herrington, D.M. Department of Internal Medicine, Section of General Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, 2008 May;18(4):283-90. Epidemiological support for the protection of whole grains against diabetes. Murtaugh, M.A., Jacobs, D.R. Jr., Jacob, B., et al. Division of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2003 Feb;62(1): 143-9. Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Schatzkin, A., Mouw, T., Park, Y., et al. Division of Cancer Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007 May;85(5):1353-60.. One study also showed that eating whole grains in place of refined grains can reduce potentially dangerous excess abdominal fat, buildup that can raise blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and even cause insulin resistance (potentially leading to diabetes) The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Katcher, H.I., Legro, R.S., Kunselman, A.R., et al. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Core Endocrine Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008 Jan;87(1): 79-90..
(Check It: 45 Healthy Foods to Make and Never Buy Again)
Once considered a weed, amaranth is now known for it's killer nutritional value. This grain is high in fiber (21 percent of the daily recommended value per cup), and it’s also a great source of the amino acid lysine and nutrients magnesium, calcium, and squalene, a compound that may help prevent cancer Cholesterol-lowering properties of amaranth grain and oil in hamsters. Berger, A., Gremaud, G., Baumgartner, M., et al. Cytochroma Inc., Markham, ON, Canada. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 2003 Feb;73(1): 39-47. Squalene: potential chemopreventive agent. Smith, T.J. University of South Carolina, College of Pharmacy, Columbia, SC. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 2000 Aug;9(8): 1841-8.. Plus, it’s also a protein powerhouse: In one study, rats that consumed amaranth grew more than those that were fed maize thanks to the grain's 9 grams of protein per cup Evaluation of the nutrtional value of the amaranth plant. I. Raw and heat-treated grain tested in experiments on growing rats. Andrásofszky, E., Szöcs, Z., Fekete, S., et al. Departmetn of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, University of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungaria. 1998;46(1): 47-59.. It also has cholesterol-lowering potential… at least in hamsters Cholesterol-lowering properties of amaranth grain and oil in hamsters. Berger, A., Gremaud, G., Baumgartner, M., et al. Cytochroma Inc., Markham, ON, Canada. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 2003 Feb;73(1): 39-47..
Kamut is the brand name — and most commonly used name — for the ancient khorasan strain of wheat. It’s a great source of protein, with 11 grams per cup, as well as nutrients like selenium, zinc, and magnesium. One study even showed that rats that consumed kamut had better responses to oxidative stress than those that had eaten wheat, which basically means kamut has is higher in antioxidants than regular wheat Role of cereal type and processing in whole grain in vivo protection from oxidative stress. Gianotti, A., Danesi, F., Verardo, V., et al. Department of Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Frontiers in Bioscience, 2011 Jan;16: 1609-18..
Formerly used primarily as bird feed in the U.S., millet is increasing in popularity among humans, whether it’s prepared like rice or made into flour and used in baked goods. It’s a good source of protein (6 grams per cup) and has been shown to help control glucose levels The effect of finger millet feeding on the early responses during the process of wound healing in diabetic rats. Rajasekaran, N.S., Nithya, M., Rose, C., et al. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Tamil Nadu, India. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 2004 Aug 4;1689(3): 190-201. Amelioration of hyperglycaemia and its associated complications by finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat matter in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Shobana, S., Harsha, M.R., Platel, K., et al. Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India. The British Journal of Nutrition, 2010 Dec;104(12): 1787-95.. Another benefit of keeping glucose levels in check? When blood sugar levels are steady, energy levels are steady.
These teeny tiny grains pack a sizable nutritional punch: Teff is surprisingly high in calcium (one cup contains 12 percent of the daily recommended value) and vitamin C, a nutrient not often found in grains. Plus, it's gluten-free, making it perfect for those with gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. Teff is primarily made of high-resistant starch, which can help prevent colon cancer Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Hylla, S., Gostner, A., Dusel, G., et al. Department of Medicine, University of Würzburg, Germany. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1998 Jan;67(1): 136-42.. Resistant starches aren't immediately digested when traveling through the small intestine. Instead, they hang out in the large intestine, where bacteria feed on them and create fatty acids that make the environment less welcoming to bacteria that can harm the colon Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Hylla, S., Gostner, A., Dusel, G., et al. Department of Medicine, University of Würzburg, Germany. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1998 Jan;67(1): 136-42.. A study also showed that people who ate muffins high in resistant starch felt fuller than those who ate muffins without Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects. Willis, H.J, Eldridge, A.L., Beiseigel, J., et al. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota. Nutrition Research, 2009 Feb;29(2): 100-5.. Teff’s tiny size (about the size of a poppy seed) allows it to cook quickly compared to other grains, ranging from 12 to 20 minutes depending on desired texture.
This grain is freekin' awesome! Basically, freekeh is wheat that’s harvested early (when the leaves are yellow and the seeds are green and soft) and then roasted, giving it a smoky flavor. Freekeh has up to four times as much protein as brown rice, and it's low on the glycemic index. Plus, it boasts a ton of fiber, which is beneficial to colon health. Freekeh can be prepared similarly to rice and is popular in pilafs and risottos. Try it in this freekeh-lentil pilaf with chicken and kale.
6. Farro (aka Emmer)
Same grain, different name (depending on location) — emmer is the American term for while it’s known as farro in Italy, where it has a rich history: This ancient strain of wheat was rationed to Roman soldiers thousands of years ago! A half-cup of farro has more fiber and fewer calories than brown rice or quinoa, and it can be used in similar preparations to those standbys.
Barley dates back to the Stone Age and can take on many roles. It can be ground into flour or meal for baked goods, added to soups and stews in its pearled form, and (of course) malted to make beer or whiskey. Since it’s high in fiber (almost a quarter of the daily recommended value in one cup of the pearled stuff), it may help prevent some chronic diseases and lower cholesterol Effects of barley intake on glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, and bowel function in women. Li, J., Kaneko, T., Qin, L.Q., et al. School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Tamaho, Yamanashi, Japan. Nutrition, 2003 Nov-Dec;19(11-12): 926-9..
Bulgur, another derivative of wheat, it’s the result of boiling, drying, and cracking wheat kernels. It’s incredibly versatile in dishes and cooks in about the same amount of time as pasta. With 8 grams of fiber per cup, or 33 percent of the daily recommended value, bulgur beats out quinoa, oats, millet, buckwheat, and corn in that category.
Fonio might be a tiny type of millet, but there's a ton of nutritional value in this grain. It’s rich in amino acids — specifically methionine, which helps the liver process fat, and cystine, which is part of the proteins that make up our hair, nails, and skin, and also helps remove toxins from the liver and brain Flavonoids extracted from fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) reveal potent antithyroid properties. Sartelet, H., Serghat, S., Lobstein, A., et al. Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Reims, France. Nutrition, 1996 Feb;12(2): 100-6.. Fonio is also one of the grains highest in magnesium, zinc, and manganese. But there may be some reason to beware: One study has linked fonio and other types of millet to hypothyroidism (when the thyroid doesn’t produce enough of certain hormones) and possible development of autism in children whose mothers ingested too much during pregnancy… but further research on both subjects is needed before conclusions can be drawn Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents. Roman, G.C. University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, TX. Journal of Neurological Science, 2007 Nov 15;262(1-2): 15-26..
10. Sorghum (aka Milo)
Sorghum is a gluten-free grain that can be a great option for those with celiac disease. Plus, it's super versatile — it can be used as flour in baked goods, cooked into porridge, popped like popcorn, or used to make beer! One study found it’s even higher in polyphenol antioxidants than the superfooods blueberries and pomegranates Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Manach, C., Scalbert, A., Morand, C., et al. Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA, Saint-Genés Champanelle, France. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2004 May;79(5): 727-47. Anti-inflammatory activity of select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brans. Burdette, A., Garner, P.L., Mayer, E.P., et al. Nutraceutical Research Laboratories, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Journal of Medicinal Food, 2010 Aug;13(4): 879-87.. And look out in the future: Extract from sorghum bran (the hard, outer layer of the grain, usually removed during processing) may soon become a popular additive to foods to increase antioxidant content in a cost-effective way.
Spelt is a type of wheat that is higher in protein than other types, and — in flour form — can easily be used as a substitute for wheat flour in recipes. There is some evidence that those with sensitivity to wheat can tolerate spelt, but other research suggests those with gluten intolerance might still want to hold off Spelt wheat and celiac disease. Forssell, F., Wieser, H. Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie, Garching, Germany. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 1995 Jul;201(1): 35-9..
When wheat and rye meet and fall in love, they make triticale, a hybrid of the two grains that's been around since the 1960s. This young’n can help lower cholesterol, and, in one study, was shown to have significant antioxidant contents Whole wheat and triticale flours with differing viscosities stimulate cecal fermentations and lower plasma and hepatic lipids in rats. Adam, A., Levrat-Verny, M.A., Lopez, H.W., et al. Institut Technique des Céréales et des Fourrages, Laboratoire Qualité des Céréales, Paris, France. Journal of Nutrition. 2001 Jun;131(6): 1770-6. Dual functionality of triticale as a novel dietary source of prebiotics with antioxidant activity in fermented dairy products. Agil, R., Hosseinian, F. Food Science and Nutrition Program, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2012 Mar;67(1): 88-93.. Triticale (all together now: tri-ti-KAY-lee) is often eaten in berry form or as oatmeal-like flakes.
Native to Russia, buckwheat is actually not a type of wheat at all — it's an herb! More closely related to rhubarb than to wheat (making it gluten-free!), its seeds are ground into flour or crushed to make groats, which are cooked like rice. Buckwheat may also help lower cholesterol levels by binding to cholesterol molecules and dragging 'em out of the body on its way through the digestive system Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells. Metzger, B.T., Barnes, D.M., Reed, J.D. Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2007 Jul 25;55(15): 6032-8.. It can also be helpful in treating diabetes because it naturally contains a compound that lowers blood glucose levels Buckwheat concentrate reduces serum glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Kawa, J.M., Taylor, C.G., Przybylski, R. Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003 Dec 3;51(25): 7287-91.. Buckwheat is the main ingredient in most soba noodles and these pancakes, but pairing it with pickles could also work.
14. Red rice
White rice, brown rice, red rice?! A type of yeast growing on rice grains yields this fun colored food — and the health benefits are pretty astounding. Long used for its medicinal properties in Asian countries (back in the 1300s, it was used in China to aid indigestion, blood circulation, and spleen health), red rice extract is gaining popularity in the US for its cholesterol-lowering properties With red rice against cholesterol? Enkovaara, A.L. Duodecim, 2010;126(6): 623-6.. Red rice can also refer to a type of rice with a red husk, which is high in fiber, has a nutty taste, and, when mixed with other foods, can turn the dish a festive shade of pink or red! Give this pilaf a try on Valentine’s Day.
15. Indian rice grass
Indian rice grass, also known by the brand name Montina, is a staple of Native American diets and is gaining popularity in the gluten-free community. Pure Indian rice grass flour is super high in protein and fiber, with 17 grams of protein, 24 grams of dietary fiber, and 24 grams of insoluble fiber in just two-thirds of a cup. It can have an intense wheat-like flavor, so it’s best combined with other flours in dark baked goods.
16. Rye berries
Everyone knows about rye bread, but the grain can also be eaten in its berry form. Rye berries can be cooked like rice or barley in pilafs or soups, though cooking can take up to an hour. Not a fan of rye bread? Don’t be discouraged — that distinct flavor comes from caraway seeds added to the bread, not the rye itself, so dishes made with rye berries won’t have the same taste. As for health benefits, it’s hard to beat rye: One study showed that rye contains a peptide called lunasin, which could play a role in cancer prevention The cancer preventive seed peptide lunasin from rye is bioavailable and bioactive. Jeong, H.J., Lee, J.R., Jeong, J.B., et al. Andong National University, Andong, Korea. Nutrition and Cancer, 2009;61(5): 680-6.. Another showed that rye fiber appears to be more effective than the wheat fiber in improving bowel health The cancer preventive seed peptide lunasin from rye is bioavailable and bioactive. Jeong, H.J., Lee, J.R., Jeong, J.B., et al. Andong National University, Andong, Korea. Nutrition and Cancer, 2009;61(5): 680-6. Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men. McIntosh, G.H., Noakes, M., Royle, P.J.J, et al. Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation Health Sciences and Nutrition, Adelaide, Australia. American Journal of Nutrition, 2003 Apr;77(4): 967-74.
17. Wheat berries
We’ve all heard of wheat, but most of the wheat we eat is in flour form in baked goods like bread and muffins — not always so healthy! Wheat berries are a way to get wheat in its most natural state — whole kernels with only the hull removed. This means they contain all the grain’s nutrients and minerals. One half-cup serving is a great source of selenium, manganese, phosphorous, magnesium, and lignan, a phytochemical that may help protect against breast cancer Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Touillaud, M.S., Thiébaut, A.C., Fournier, A., et al. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Institut Gustave-Roussy, France. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2007 Mar 21;99(6): 475-86.. Once cooked (simmered in boiling water for up to an hour should do it), they are a great addition to soups, stews, and salads (like this wheat berry salad with strawberries and goat cheese). Since wheat berries are quite literally whole wheat, they may be more filling than a similar amount of food made with wheat flour The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects. Hlebowicz, J., Lindstedt, S., Björgell, O., et al. Nutrition Journal, 2008 Apr 27;7:12..