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What’s Best for Sore Muscles: Heat or Ice?
Working out does the body good, but it’s not all sunshine and rainbows once those supersets are through. Muscle soreness annoys most athletes, which could be a (literal) pain in the butt . But when it comes to optimal recovery, is post-workout heat or ice best?
Hot or Not — The Need-to-Know
In one report, researchers looked at 17 studies involving nearly 400 people. The brave souls who endured an ice bath for at least five minutes after exercise reduced muscle soreness by 20 percent compared to those who simply rested . Don’t jibe with a tub full of ice? Cold packs have their own success story, reducing blood flow in the muscles (a sign of inflammation) by 50 percent after 10 minutes of ice-time .
Muscle soreness is the common coldof the exercise world: It’s a nuisance, but we’ll most likely all have to deal with it at some point in time. And while it may be, well, a little nippy, some experts have found that cryotherapy (cold therapy), is an effective way to help prevent sore muscles. (It’s important to remember that this only helps alleviate pain and doesn’t actually repair muscles faster.)
Heat, on the other hand, may not fire up recovery. One study found that applying heat to muscles after exercise failed to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) . Some experts are quick to note that high-quality studies on heat are limited, though. One small study did find that heat wrap therapy reduced lower back pain, whereas older research warns that applying heat incorrectly may prolong the recovery process from certain sports injuries  . Ouch.
Sub-Zero to Hero — Your Action Plan
For some, ice might be the one-stop shop for pain relief . The cold impact is shown to numb pain while narrowing blood vessels, which helps limit the amount of swelling. Heat actually has the opposite effect: It increases blood flow, which may enhance inflammation. But if applied after any swelling has gone down, heat may help with the muscle recovery and relaxation . Just be sure to limit electric heat pack use to 15 to 20 minutes tops, with a few layers between the pack and skin to prevent burns.
Cryotherapy could be a walk on thin ice, too, though. Some experts caution that cold therapy research is also limited and low quality. But the typical recommendation is to ice in cycles of "10 minutes on, 10 minutes off" to avoid any potential dangers. Applying ice for more than 20 minutes at once could damage muscle tissues, increase heart rate, and may even lead to shock.
Of course, there are other soothing solutions to help keep those muscles feelin’ fresh. Anti-inflammatory medication could help reduce swelling (definitely check with the doc first). And stretching, eating well, staying hydrating, and even treating the body to a massage may also do the trick to speed along recovery, no extreme temps necessary .
Photo by Ben Draper
- Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors. Cheung, K., Hume, P, Maxwell, L. School of Community Health and Sports Studies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Sports Medicine, 2003;33(2):145-64.⤴
- Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise. Bleakley, C., McDonough, S., Gardner, E., et al. Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Ulster, Antrim, UK. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, 2012 Feb 15;2:CD008262.⤴
- Cold therapy of athletic injuries. Thorsson, O. Kliniskt fysiologiska laboratoriet, Universitessjukhuset MAS, Malmö. Lakartidningen, 2001 Mar 28;98(13):1512-3.⤴
- Effects of deep heat as a preventative mechanism on delayed onset muscle soreness. Brock Symons, T., Clasey, J.L., Gater, D.R., et al. Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2004 Feb;18(1):155-61.⤴
- Continuous low-level heat wrap therapy for the prevention and early phase treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness of the low back: a randomized controlled trial. Mayer, J.M., Mooney, V., Matheson, L.N., et al. U.S. Spine & Sport Foundation, San Diego, CA. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2006 Oct;87(10):1310-7.⤴
- Athletic injuries: Heat vs. cold. Kalenak, A., Medlar, C.D., Fleagle, S.B., et al. American Family Physician. 1975 Nov;12(5):131-4.⤴
- Treatments for chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury: A survey study. Cardenas, D.D., Jensen, M.P. University of Washington, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seattle, WA. Journal of Spinal Chord Medicine, 2006;29(2):109-17.⤴
- Effect of heating on vascular reactivity in rat mesenteric arteries. Massett, M.P., Lewis, S.J., Bates, J.N., et al. Department of Exercise Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. The Journal of Applied Physiology, 1998 Aug;85(2):701-8.⤴
- Post exercise ice water immersion: Is it a form of active recovery? Lateef, F. Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock, 2010 Jul-Sep; 3(3): 302.⤴
Comments Leave a comment
I've never been a big fan of icing after a game, but there's a reason the majority of pro athletes do it. Might have to find a way to make it happen for me.
To ice or not to ice really depends on the situation-it is essential for immediate therapy for an injury of any sort-especially a joint injury, for the reasons listed above. If you follow the old rule of ice for the first 24 hours then heat, it seems to work best. One thing to remember is to NEVER use heat on knee injuries-old or new. Heat causes the sinovial membrane to swell in the joint capsule and will limit mobility and cause your knee to hurt worse in some cases.
My understanding was that an ice bath actually helps to heal the muscles, because it contracts them and helps the microscopic tears to knit back together. Is that a myth?
It should be noted that despite believing that, I am still too much of a wuss to actually take ice baths :)
@50by25 Haha they are quiiite the experience! And really good point...there are mixed opinions about this myth. While soreness is a result of these micro tears, most studies suggest that ice just numbs the pain while narrowing blood vessels to reduce swelling. Rest seems to be the best method for repairing micro tears!
There is no evidence that stretching after exercise prevents muscle soreness.