Creatine is a common exercise supplement that’s used to increase the strength and size of muscles and to provide a quick energy boost. Creatine monohydrate is the best known and most widely used form.
Naturally produced in the kidney, liver, and pancreas, creatine carries few risks (it may cause gas and bloating in some people), and there’s evidence that it can increase brain function and improve heart and muscle disorders. .
- Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Kim, H., Kim, C., Carpentier, A. Department of Human Physiology, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, South Korea. Amino Acids, 2011 May;40(5):1409-18.⤴
- Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old. Rawson, E., Venezia, A. Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA. Amino Acids, 2011 May;40(5):1349-62.⤴
- Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Kley, R., Vorgerd, M., Tarnopolsky, M. Ruhr University Bochum, Department of Neurology, Germany. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD004760⤴
- Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function. Yoshizumi, W., Tsourounis, C. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 2004;4(1):1-7⤴
- A randomized, double-blind, futility clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease. NINDS NET-PD Investigators. Neurology, 2006 Mar 14;66(5):664-71.⤴
- Creatine supplementation improves muscle strength in patients with congestive heart failure. Kuethe, F., Krack, A., Richartz, B., et al. Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Germany. Pharmazie, 2006 Mar;61(3):218-22.⤴